/A 490 0 R /A 490 0 R /Pg 22 0 R << /Pg 34 0 R /K 30 endobj >> /S /p2 endobj >> >> << /A 470 0 R endobj /Properties << 156 0 obj /S /Underline >> << >> << endobj >> Thus, leadership researchers focused on identifying robust individual differences in personality traits that were thought to be associated with effective leadership. endobj >> 138 0 obj /S /p2 /A 471 0 R >> /Pg 29 0 R << /S /Link /P 550 0 R >> << 350 0 obj /Pg 35 0 R /A 497 0 R /Font << << /S /p11 /A 470 0 R /A 490 0 R /K 14 3. /CropBox [0 0 612 792] /P 12 0 R %���� /K [28 29] /K 5 165 0 obj /K 10 >> 90 0 obj endobj >> /MC0 440 0 R >> >> /ExtGState << /P 12 0 R /StructParents 19 >> /K 0 Managers were unsure of how to train employees (many of them non‐English speaking immigrants) or deal with increased labor dissatisfaction, so they began to test solutions. /Superscript /Span /Pg 21 0 R >> /S /t26 << /S /p2 << >> 58 0 R 59 0 R 60 0 R 61 0 R 62 0 R 63 0 R 64 0 R 65 0 R 342 0 R 342 0 R The first school of thought, structuralism, was advocated by the founder of the first psychology lab, Wilhelm Wundt. /A 490 0 R /Pg 32 0 R /S /p38 << endobj /Pg 20 0 R >> /Properties << endobj 326 0 obj /TT2 438 0 R >> /A 470 0 R /Pg 29 0 R /A 470 0 R >> >> /p43 /P /p8 /P /Subtype /XML /S /Underline /p24 /P /CropBox [0 0 612 792] /Pg 20 0 R /K 8 << endobj endobj /P 12 0 R /Contents 448 0 R /K 14 5 [147 0 R 148 0 R 149 0 R 150 0 R 151 0 R 152 0 R 153 0 R 154 0 R 155 0 R 156 0 R /A 470 0 R << /A 481 0 R >> 267 0 obj /S /p36 endobj /A 470 0 R /P 524 0 R /Pg 25 0 R << /Pg 37 0 R /A 481 0 R /F5 423 0 R /MC0 440 0 R /S /heading#201 /S /p38 The model describes each school in … /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] 405 0 obj /TT1 438 0 R /P 12 0 R /MC0 440 0 R << << 304 0 R 305 0 R 306 0 R 307 0 R 308 0 R 309 0 R 310 0 R 311 0 R 312 0 R 313 0 R << >> /S /p25 << endobj /K 9 /S /Normal /P 12 0 R >> /S /Normal >> /Pg 36 0 R >> 254 0 obj << endobj /Pg 37 0 R >> /MC0 440 0 R /A 470 0 R /Pg 36 0 R /S /p17 << /K 2 /S /p7 311 0 obj /S /Normal << /K 342 0 R /K 4 /P 12 0 R /Pg 19 0 R /Pg 28 0 R /Pg 29 0 R /P 12 0 R >> 337 0 obj << 313 0 obj /TT2 439 0 R /A 501 0 R /p20 /P endobj /S /p38 /S /p11 >> /K 4 /A 470 0 R << >> 27 0 obj /K 3 >> 196 0 obj >> /Title (UNIT 4 SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT) >> 307 0 obj << /ParentTree 13 0 R << 288 0 obj /Pg 35 0 R /S /t26 /P 522 0 R << /TT0 437 0 R >> endobj /TT1 439 0 R 385 0 obj /P 12 0 R /P 546 0 R /ExtGState << /P 12 0 R >> /TT0 437 0 R 63 0 obj /p7 /P /TT2 438 0 R /Pg 20 0 R /S /p21 /StructParents 9 237 0 obj /K 10 /A 470 0 R /Pg 27 0 R /K 8 endobj /K 32 >> endobj /A 470 0 R /K 6 /Pg 35 0 R << /A 470 0 R endobj >> endobj /A 470 0 R endobj /S /Normal /First 9 0 R 178 0 R 179 0 R 180 0 R 181 0 R 182 0 R 183 0 R 184 0 R 185 0 R 186 0 R 187 0 R /Resources << /K 10 /S /t26 endobj /S /p4 /TT1 438 0 R /P 12 0 R /A 471 0 R >> /S /p10 /Pg 35 0 R /K 14 >> endobj endobj /K 7 �+Sl�V����˗���Gޗ"���%{O���ȇ�,Ej籬s�/�rF �}S��t���6�Z����;[�� /S /p25 /Parent 10 0 R /A 470 0 R /S /Normal >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] << /Pg 29 0 R The Social Systems School. >> /A 470 0 R /A 470 0 R /A 495 0 R /S /Normal /A 470 0 R /S /Normal >> 31 0 obj << >> << /A 470 0 R /K 15 /S /Underline /Pg 37 0 R 387 0 obj >> /Type /Page 259 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> endobj >> /P 526 0 R /S /t26 endobj 164 0 obj endobj /A 470 0 R /Pg 36 0 R /Pg 23 0 R 353 0 obj /A [498 0 R] /K 6 >> << 248 0 R 249 0 R 250 0 R 251 0 R 252 0 R 253 0 R 254 0 R 255 0 R 256 0 R 257 0 R /Pg 20 0 R /A 470 0 R 12 [236 0 R 237 0 R 238 0 R 239 0 R 240 0 R 241 0 R 242 0 R 350 0 R 244 0 R 245 0 R Like Fayol, Barnard based his theories and approach to management on the basis of his first-hand experience as a top-level executive. /P 12 0 R 253 0 obj 201 0 obj /K 2 >> /P 12 0 R endobj /Font << /Pg 24 0 R /S /Normal /K 4 >> /K [38 0 R 39 0 R 40 0 R 41 0 R 42 0 R 43 0 R 44 0 R 45 0 R 46 0 R 47 0 R /K 3 /A 470 0 R << endobj /Pg 22 0 R /Pg 21 0 R 356 0 obj /Pg 36 0 R >> >> /P 12 0 R /K 13 >> 136 0 obj endobj 134) The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. 56 0 obj >> >> /S /p2 /A 490 0 R >> >> /Type /Pages /TT1 439 0 R 191 0 obj of differences in school effects to malleable conditions. /Pg 36 0 R >> /P 12 0 R /TT2 439 0 R 256 0 obj /A 482 0 R << endobj 116 0 obj /CropBox [0 0 612 792] << /P 12 0 R << Academics develop and re ne theory while managers engage in practice. endobj /S /t26 /S /p38 >> In short, there is a theory/ practice divide, or gap (English, 2002): The theory-practice gap stands as the Gordian Knot of educational administration. /K 5 /Pg 27 0 R /Parent 10 0 R << endobj endobj /K 0 /Resources << /K 8 << endobj >> endobj /A 470 0 R endobj >> << endobj /TT1 439 0 R >> /K 22 /Pg 37 0 R /Pg 27 0 R /S /p12 /A 470 0 R endobj /RoleMap 14 0 R /Pg 32 0 R /K 8 /S /p7 /K 2 /K 4 /Pg 34 0 R /Properties << /S /t26 /A 490 0 R 70 0 obj /A 470 0 R << /Pg 19 0 R /A 470 0 R /A 470 0 R >> 222 0 obj /Contents 451 0 R /K 34 /P 12 0 R /S /p9 /K 17 endobj /A 470 0 R << /S /Normal >> /Pg 18 0 R /A 470 0 R /StructParents 6 >> endobj 231 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> << << 42 0 obj << /Pg 21 0 R >> /Pg 26 0 R endobj /P 12 0 R /S /t28 /TOFI /TOCI /S /p1 /StructParents 14 /S /p6 /SA true /K 2 endobj /P 12 0 R /A 470 0 R /CS0 [/ICCBased 467 0 R] /Pg 37 0 R 328 0 R 329 0 R 330 0 R 331 0 R 332 0 R 333 0 R 334 0 R 335 0 R 336 0 R 337 0 R 163 0 obj /Pg 26 0 R << /P 533 0 R >> endobj 323 0 obj /A 470 0 R 146 0 obj Specifically, Burke and Cooper (2004) write about how management is now based around knowledge workers and the management of those individuals, and that information has become of great /A 514 0 R /P 12 0 R endobj /P 12 0 R /GS0 441 0 R /Annots [462 0 R 463 0 R] 68 0 obj 129 0 obj /Rotate 0 /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] endobj 220 0 obj /A 470 0 R /p4 /P << endobj /A 482 0 R /Pg 30 0 R endobj /Pg 33 0 R /P 549 0 R 138 0 R 139 0 R 140 0 R 141 0 R 142 0 R 143 0 R 144 0 R 145 0 R 146 0 R 147 0 R >> /S /Normal /K 492 0 R >> endobj /TT1 439 0 R << endobj /Type /StructTreeRoot In order to determine the ‘net’ effect of malleable conditions, like the use of different teaching methods or a particular form of school management, achievement /A 470 0 R School of management thoughts 1. >> /S /p25 /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] >> >> /p35 /P /Type /Page /P 515 0 R >> 238 0 R 239 0 R 240 0 R 241 0 R 242 0 R 243 0 R 244 0 R 245 0 R 246 0 R 247 0 R >> << /P 12 0 R /K 6 262 0 obj /K 344 0 R /Pg 26 0 R /A 469 0 R /S /p40 /P 12 0 R >> << << 132 0 obj << >> /A 470 0 R << >> /Pg 32 0 R /P 12 0 R /S /Normal /K 11 /Pg 23 0 R 409 0 obj /P 12 0 R /LastModified (D:20080805120801) /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] << 384 0 obj /Pg 20 0 R /A 490 0 R endobj endobj /MarkInfo << The Classical School• the oldest formal school of management thought for its roots pre- date the twentieth century.• it generally concerns ways to manage work and organizations more efficiently. /P 12 0 R /Properties << 58 0 obj /S /Normal >> /P 518 0 R << /K 4 << /P 12 0 R /P 12 0 R 320 0 obj It is undeniable that strategical evolution is the fundamental element for the endurance and success of every business. /K 13 endobj endobj /t27 /P /S /p25 255 0 obj << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] endobj /K 7 << /K 1 >> /S /t26 381 0 obj /K 10 endobj << << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] 287 0 obj /Font << /S /p38 /K 27 /A 470 0 R endobj 142 0 obj endobj /S /p31 /S /p2 << /K 8 << /A 490 0 R /MC0 440 0 R 299 0 R 355 0 R 356 0 R 357 0 R 358 0 R 359 0 R 360 0 R] /Pg 18 0 R /Properties << /Length 4357 endobj /Pg 18 0 R /A 472 0 R /A 490 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /A 470 0 R /TT1 439 0 R 400 0 obj /Pg 21 0 R /P 12 0 R >> /Pg 35 0 R /S /p2 /p1 /P /Annots [425 0 R 426 0 R 427 0 R 428 0 R 429 0 R 430 0 R 431 0 R 432 0 R 433 0 R 434 0 R] 36 0 obj >> 268 0 R 269 0 R 270 0 R 271 0 R 272 0 R 273 0 R 274 0 R 275 0 R 276 0 R 277 0 R << /GS0 441 0 R >> /Pg 31 0 R /S /p2 /Resources << /K 12 /K 36 << >> /InlineShape /Figure /P 12 0 R /Pg 35 0 R schools want to be directly included into their own changes, they ought to be asked both for the changes that are being undertaken in educational scheme, as well for the forms of management of educational scheme and school, too. >> 84 0 obj /A 470 0 R << /Pg 35 0 R �[2{��o �O}�����m�glۣ�M�% 8�X�����^h?\mm ��&*���Dj��o]fGJy}�֥����W.�� >> /A 490 0 R >> /K 0 >> /Pg 35 0 R endobj /A 470 0 R /K 33 /K 1 /P 12 0 R endobj /Last 9 0 R >> /P 12 0 R endobj 95 0 obj endobj /A 490 0 R /P 12 0 R << /ExtGState << /K 7 /A 470 0 R >> /P 12 0 R /A 470 0 R /P 12 0 R 176 0 obj /ExtGState << /P 12 0 R /K 15 /K 1 /P 12 0 R /Pg 18 0 R endobj /Type /Page >> /Pg 23 0 R /A 490 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /P 523 0 R 369 0 obj /A 481 0 R 284 0 obj /Pg 19 0 R endobj /A 470 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /S /p2 >> /Pg 35 0 R /P 12 0 R stream /S /p10 << /A 470 0 R /K 14 /K 11 /P 571 0 R /Font << >> /K 1 << /P 12 0 R 94 0 obj 360 0 obj /K 1 /S /p30 << 395 0 obj << << 403 0 obj << 159 0 obj << /Pg 30 0 R 327 0 obj << 111 0 R 112 0 R 113 0 R 114 0 R 115 0 R 116 0 R 117 0 R] /S /p11 /S /Normal /A 481 0 R << /P 12 0 R /StructParents 1 >> /P 12 0 R /K 2 /Pg 36 0 R >> endobj /Type /Page /Pg 20 0 R endobj 303 0 obj /P 12 0 R << /Pg 30 0 R << /S /p25 249 0 obj >> << endobj /P 12 0 R >> endobj /P 553 0 R The Design School. /Pg 24 0 R 155 0 obj >> /MC0 440 0 R /S /p38 /K 5 endobj endobj /ExtGState << << << endobj endobj endobj /P 532 0 R endobj /GS0 441 0 R >> /Pg 36 0 R >> endobj endobj endobj endobj >> >> /S /p25 /Rotate 0 /P 12 0 R 162 0 obj /P 530 0 R /P 182 0 R /S /p25 endobj /Pg 20 0 R 328 0 obj 258 0 R 259 0 R 260 0 R 261 0 R 262 0 R 263 0 R 264 0 R 265 0 R 266 0 R 267 0 R /A 512 0 R /P 562 0 R /P 12 0 R /MC0 440 0 R 314 0 obj >> 188 0 R 189 0 R 190 0 R 191 0 R 192 0 R 193 0 R 194 0 R 195 0 R 196 0 R 197 0 R 411 0 obj 295 0 obj /TOAI /TOCI << In this process, the internal situation of the organization is matched to the external situation of the environment. /A 470 0 R << /K 11 /S /p10 /P 12 0 R /GS0 441 0 R << >> >> 200 0 obj /A 470 0 R /S /Underline /S /Normal /Pg 27 0 R endobj endobj >> 158 0 obj /P 81 0 R >> /A 470 0 R Basis: Architecture as a metaphor. >> /S /p43 /Resources << /K 8 /P 12 0 R /Parent 11 0 R /Name (HeaderFooter) /BM /Normal /Contents 450 0 R /P 12 0 R >> >> >> /K 37 /K 21 /K 6 /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] << /PageLayout /OneColumn /A 472 0 R /K 1 /S /p17 >> /Font << >> 329 0 obj endobj /K 25 /p41 /P /S /Normal /P 12 0 R /S /p7 << /TT0 437 0 R /Parent 11 0 R /K 3 uuid:7bd29ef1-be59-42d7-8580-df7f94b7d3d7 /Pg 29 0 R >> /P 12 0 R >> /Pg 36 0 R /A 507 0 R >> /A 470 0 R /K 11 /K 9 /K 3 /K 20 183 0 R 184 0 R 185 0 R 186 0 R 187 0 R 188 0 R] /P 539 0 R 53 0 obj /P 12 0 R >> 60 0 obj endobj /S /p41 /P 12 0 R endobj /TT2 439 0 R /StructParents 13 /S /p38 /S /t26 endobj >> << /P 12 0 R /S /Normal Management Process School: Henri Fayol is known as the father of this School of Thought. >> /Kids [17 0 R 18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 25 0 R 26 0 R /Font << /P 12 0 R /Rotate 0 endobj >> /S /Normal endobj /A 470 0 R >> /TT2 438 0 R /K 19 >> /A 470 0 R /S /D /P 12 0 R << /P 12 0 R /K 30 << >> /StructParents 0 223 0 obj /S /p11 >> 396 0 obj /A 470 0 R /K 8 >> /P 555 0 R 390 0 R 391 0 R 392 0 R 393 0 R 394 0 R 395 0 R 396 0 R 397 0 R] /K 0 /Rotate 0 endobj uuid:731827c1-436c-494f-b61d-daf7c0454b18 65 0 obj >> /A 470 0 R 2 0 obj /Parent 11 0 R /P 218 0 R /A 470 0 R /S /p6 endobj /S /p7 /S /t26 /Pg 36 0 R /K 35 /S /p25 << /Pg 23 0 R /P 12 0 R 343 0 obj /Pg 30 0 R /CropBox [0 0 612 792] 167 0 obj << /TT0 437 0 R endobj endobj endobj 172 0 obj /P 12 0 R /S /p11 endobj /K [6 7] Acrobat PDFMaker 7.0 for Word /P 12 0 R /GS0 441 0 R /K 11 endobj /p42 /P 1.1. /K 4 /Pg 33 0 R << /A 481 0 R /A 470 0 R 359 0 obj /P 12 0 R /S /p25 378 0 obj endobj /Count 1 endobj endobj /S /Normal /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] endobj /S /p6 /S /Normal 1. /A 490 0 R /GS0 441 0 R /Pg 35 0 R In this paper we will first set out the main sources for UK management theory and then outline some of the criticisms of the mechanistic models from which these ideas are derived. /Pg 20 0 R /TT1 438 0 R /A 504 0 R endobj /S /p36 408 0 obj endobj His research was the greatest event of nineteenth century (Grey, 2005). /S /p3 /P 12 0 R /Pg 25 0 R /K 8 /A 510 0 R /K 19 >> >> /A 470 0 R >> << /A 471 0 R /K 26 endobj /S /p42 266 0 obj >> /Pg 19 0 R endobj /Pg 21 0 R << endobj /A 470 0 R /Pg 23 0 R /K 19 /S /t26 /A 497 0 R /S /p43 /K 24 /P 12 0 R /K 31 endobj << /P 577 0 R endobj /Creator (Acrobat PDFMaker 7.0 for Word) >> /Filter /FlateDecode /P 12 0 R << /Pg 18 0 R << /P 12 0 R /Height 320 /K 37 endobj endobj /A 472 0 R /Rotate 0 /A 576 0 R /P 544 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] << /S /p38 endobj 285 0 R 286 0 R 287 0 R 353 0 R 353 0 R 289 0 R 290 0 R] /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageC] /S /p5 /K 8 /A 476 0 R /P 12 0 R >> /K 3 357 0 obj /K 16 << /P 12 0 R << /S /Normal /S /p25 endobj 279 0 obj 54 0 obj >> /Pg 25 0 R /TT3 444 0 R 224 0 obj /A 470 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] endobj 229 0 obj /t26 /P In short: Fit! /K 7 /P 12 0 R 37 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> /P 12 0 R 416 0 obj /P 265 0 R endobj 388 0 obj << 1.2. /Parent 11 0 R /P 12 0 R << /Pg 28 0 R /K 15 endobj /K 34 >> /K [10 488 0 R] /K 24 << /P 12 0 R /Pg 36 0 R /P 12 0 R endobj >> /S /t26 The Management Process School: It considers management as a process of getting things done by people who operate in organised groups. /S /p17 /A 470 0 R << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] >> /A 490 0 R /S /p6 361 0 obj /S /t26 371 0 obj /Type /Page 15 0 obj >> /K 26 /Properties << endobj /StructParents 12 >> /S /p2 414 0 obj /Pg 29 0 R endobj /A 470 0 R /Pg 30 0 R 358 0 obj /P 12 0 R >> endobj endobj /GS0 441 0 R /P 12 0 R /TT1 438 0 R /Pg 35 0 R 41 0 obj << /TT2 438 0 R 7 0 obj 270 0 obj << endobj /S /p43 /K 0 /K 27 /P 12 0 R << endobj /A 470 0 R >> >> /S /Normal /S /Normal endobj /Parent 11 0 R 245 0 obj /Parent 11 0 R /K 6 /S /p38 /P 339 0 R << >> >> /K 8 /A 470 0 R /P 12 0 R >> << /Rotate 0 /S /p28 /P 12 0 R endobj /A 470 0 R endobj /Pg 25 0 R << /Type /Page /A 470 0 R �H���h��]�u�̾�@����&Dw7�?8���z���1�Q�5�V�I�P� ��YsQ�. /TT2 438 0 R 20 0 obj endobj /K 3 endobj /P 12 0 R 145 0 obj endobj 2008-08-05T12:08:01+05:30 /TOF /TOC >> /P 12 0 R /K 31 /Pg 33 0 R >> endobj 317 0 obj /A 470 0 R /P 548 0 R /P 12 0 R 391 0 obj >> endobj /S /p7 /K 12 /F4 468 0 R /S /p38 /S /p4 >> 274 0 obj endobj endobj 174 0 obj /Pg 21 0 R /p6 /P >> endobj /TT2 438 0 R 368 0 obj /K 12 >> /TT0 437 0 R >> /GS0 441 0 R /A 470 0 R << >> /P 12 0 R /S /L 182 0 obj /Pg 31 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] >> 76 0 obj endobj 309 0 obj /P 12 0 R /A 470 0 R << endobj /Pg 27 0 R >> /Pg 34 0 R 74 0 obj /K 11 /Pg 35 0 R /P 12 0 R endobj /Pg 29 0 R /CropBox [0 0 612 792] /P 525 0 R 292 0 obj /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] >> /S /Normal 5 0 obj endobj << /Pg 18 0 R << 299 0 obj /Parent 10 0 R 62 0 obj << /S /t26 /K 22 /Pg 18 0 R /K 5 endobj >> /Pg 31 0 R /TT2 438 0 R /P 12 0 R 100 0 obj /S /p2 /A 470 0 R endobj << /Pg 20 0 R /Pg 24 0 R /K [1 2] /P 12 0 R endobj /K 32 /A 470 0 R 288 0 R 289 0 R 290 0 R 291 0 R 292 0 R 293 0 R 294 0 R 295 0 R 296 0 R 297 0 R /TT1 439 0 R << endobj endobj /Pg 25 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /S /p2 >> /P 12 0 R /P 12 0 R << endobj /A 470 0 R /MarkedPDF << 276 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> /A 474 0 R >> endobj /P 12 0 R Social System School: This school is also known as social behaviour school. << << /P 12 0 R /MC0 440 0 R /Pg 22 0 R /Pg 31 0 R >> 397 0 obj /Pg 29 0 R /K 1 /S /p9 >> /S /Normal /K 20 /P 298 0 R >> >> /P 12 0 R endobj 18 0 obj /Pg 18 0 R /Pg 36 0 R /S /p39 endobj 402 0 obj /Type /Page /Pg 35 0 R << /S /p11 /K 11 endobj /P 12 0 R /TT0 437 0 R << /Pg 21 0 R /K 343 0 R /A 470 0 R /A 481 0 R << endobj /S /p27 /A 470 0 R 338 0 obj Management is also a profession because it is based on advanced and cultivated knowledge. << /A 481 0 R /Pg 28 0 R /A 470 0 R << 263 0 obj 270 0 R 271 0 R 272 0 R 273 0 R 274 0 R 275 0 R] >> /A 470 0 R /P 12 0 R /P 12 0 R << 244 0 obj >> /Pg 21 0 R /P 529 0 R >> endobj /K 35 /Pg 36 0 R /Pg 37 0 R /K 1 /A 470 0 R /P 12 0 R << >> /Pg 18 0 R 3 [347 0 R 118 0 R 119 0 R 120 0 R 121 0 R 122 0 R 123 0 R 124 0 R 125 0 R 126 0 R In strategic management the Ten Schools of Thought model by Henry Mintzeberg is a framework that can be used to categorize the field of Strategic Management. /K 9 173 0 obj >> endobj << /S /t28 /Pg 35 0 R 4 [133 0 R 134 0 R 135 0 R 136 0 R 137 0 R 138 0 R 139 0 R 140 0 R 141 0 R 142 0 R >> >> /Pg 25 0 R /Resources << /K 9 server /K 10 195 0 obj /K 28 Show EXHIBIT 2. /Rotate 0 << <> /Pg 35 0 R /P 12 0 R 336 0 obj /A 482 0 R /K 11 218 0 R 219 0 R 220 0 R 221 0 R 222 0 R 223 0 R 224 0 R 225 0 R 226 0 R 227 0 R /Pg 18 0 R << /p40 /P /P 12 0 R Schools of Management Thought – 6 Schools of Management Thought 1. endobj /P 12 0 R endobj /Pg 28 0 R /P 12 0 R 10 [212 0 R 213 0 R 214 0 R 215 0 R 216 0 R 217 0 R 349 0 R 349 0 R 219 0 R 220 0 R 340 0 R 341 0 R] << << 101 0 R 102 0 R 103 0 R 104 0 R 105 0 R 106 0 R 107 0 R 108 0 R 109 0 R 110 0 R /BitsPerComponent 8 /S /p2 This school sees strategy formation as a process of conception. 306 0 obj endobj 265 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> The planning school. /MC0 440 0 R /Pg 20 0 R /Pg 30 0 R >> /Pg 20 0 R /S /p10 << << 285 0 obj /K 9 >> Process analysis provides a conceptual framework for it, and identifies this principles underlying the process. /Pg 28 0 R /K 414 0 R /S /p1 endobj /S /Underline Douglas McGregor theory of management suggested that there is need to motivate employees through authoritative direction and employee self-control and he introduced the concept of Theory X and Y. /Pg 26 0 R >> endobj << /Parent 2 0 R /Contents 456 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /S /p17 /A 482 0 R Its main focus is maximum productivity. /S /Normal /S /p5 354 0 obj /S /Normal 415 0 obj 59 0 obj /P 12 0 R /P 12 0 R endobj /S /Normal >> >> /A 470 0 R 315 0 obj /S /p25 296 0 obj 14 0 obj 1.3. /K 1 << << /K 2 /Pg 23 0 R /S /p17 /K 11 133 0 obj 13 [249 0 R 250 0 R 251 0 R 252 0 R 253 0 R 254 0 R 255 0 R 256 0 R 257 0 R 258 0 R endobj /S /p38 /A 505 0 R /ExtGState << /K 8 >> /A 470 0 R endobj << 300 0 obj endobj >> /S /GoTo /K 7 endobj << /K 29 /P 12 0 R >> /P 12 0 R /Pg 35 0 R >> >> endobj /Contents 443 0 R << >> >> endobj /Rotate 0 >> /S /p11 /Pg 29 0 R >> /Pg 36 0 R << /S /t27 /MC0 440 0 R /Pg 36 0 R Reduce… Management is an art, science as well as a profession Management is an art because certain skills, essential for good management, are unique to individuals. >> /P 12 0 R /K 21 /Pg 27 0 R /Pg 18 0 R << /Pg 30 0 R 289 0 obj /A 470 0 R /Pg 20 0 R 120 0 obj << /Pg 33 0 R << /Pg 24 0 R /S /p7 << >> /K 4 >> endobj /A 471 0 R << /K 7 /Pg 18 0 R << /P 12 0 R /S /p11 /P 12 0 R >> /A 470 0 R /K 0 352 0 obj /A 470 0 R /Pg 35 0 R >> /A 470 0 R << << /A 470 0 R 22 0 obj /Pg 20 0 R /S /t26 /Pg 30 0 R /K 17 /A 470 0 R 77 0 obj 241 0 obj /StructParents 5 /A 470 0 R /A 470 0 R << /Parent 10 0 R endobj endobj /CropBox [0 0 612 792] /A 490 0 R /A 470 0 R /A 470 0 R >> Other … 75 0 obj /TT1 439 0 R /TT0 437 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] 370 0 obj /K 349 0 R /S /p31 /S /p2 /K 4 /K 10 << /K 23 168 0 R 169 0 R 170 0 R 171 0 R 172 0 R 173 0 R 174 0 R 175 0 R 176 0 R 177 0 R /S /Normal /S /p17 /Resources << << >> /P 12 0 R 8 0 obj /Pg 21 0 R /TT0 437 0 R 73 0 obj /S /p4 /A 472 0 R << 322 0 obj 118 0 R 119 0 R 120 0 R 121 0 R 122 0 R 123 0 R 124 0 R 125 0 R 126 0 R 127 0 R << /A 471 0 R /A 470 0 R /TT2 438 0 R endobj << << /TT0 437 0 R /K [43 477 0 R] 35 0 obj >> /S /p2 >> >> endobj >> /StructParents 18 /P 12 0 R endobj endobj /K 3 298 0 obj endobj /S /Normal 98 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> /S /Normal endobj /A 470 0 R 210 0 obj >> /P 12 0 R /Properties << endobj /A 490 0 R /S /p25 /A 470 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /ModDate (D:20080805120801+05'30') 125 0 obj >> /K 12 /S /Normal /Pg 22 0 R /Pg 26 0 R Contributions: Order. /P 12 0 R /Pg 18 0 R /S /p4 One of the most important contributions to this school has been made by Chester I. Barnard. endobj /S /Normal /Type /XObject /Type /Page /P 12 0 R >> /S /p17 >> /A 470 0 R 127 0 obj /S /p2 /OCGs [5 0 R] /Properties << /S /t26 16 0 obj /LastModified (D:20080805120801) /ExtGState << 128 0 R 129 0 R 130 0 R 131 0 R 132 0 R 133 0 R 134 0 R 135 0 R 136 0 R 137 0 R >> /P 288 0 R >> /TT1 439 0 R /S /t26 /Pg 21 0 R /A 471 0 R >> endobj 11 0 obj << << >> /S /LBody /P 12 0 R /A 470 0 R /S /Normal Over time it has adopted new theories and practices. endobj >> /S /p37 /P 12 0 R /S /p2 >> /K 18 endobj /A 471 0 R /A 470 0 R endobj /A 470 0 R >> 248 0 obj 1.4. /S /Normal /K 14 /Pg 36 0 R /Type /Page /TT2 438 0 R /S /Normal >> >> /K 5 /TT2 438 0 R 331 0 obj /S /p25 endobj 82 0 obj /Pg 31 0 R /Pg 19 0 R >> >> << 92 0 obj 375 0 obj 9 0 obj /Kids [10 0 R 11 0 R] >> /Pg 36 0 R /CropBox [0 0 612 792] /Pg 32 0 R 318 0 obj /K 10 319 0 obj endobj /P 12 0 R >> /A 472 0 R by comparing average achievement scores between schools. /P 12 0 R /Pg 26 0 R /P 545 0 R >> /Pg 37 0 R << >> /CropBox [0 0 612 792] << /A 490 0 R /Resources << /P 12 0 R >> >> << << >> /S /Normal << /S /p11 /LetterspaceFlags 0 /A 470 0 R /P 12 0 R endobj >> endobj >> >> /Pg 27 0 R /Outline /Span /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /p36 /P /ExtGState << /A 513 0 R /K 16 endobj 362 0 obj /S /p2 endobj /S /p3 << /P 12 0 R endobj /Contents 436 0 R << /K 18 /K [38 39] 339 0 obj 392 0 obj /S /p43 /Pg 35 0 R /S /Normal << /P 12 0 R /S /Normal /K 1 /S /p17 /A 470 0 R /K 9 198 0 obj 365 0 obj application/pdf 268 0 obj << /P 12 0 R 204 0 obj 102 0 obj endobj /X9 421 0 R /K 25 /S /p36 /S /p38 149 0 obj << /S /t26 /P 573 0 R 47 0 obj >> /A 508 0 R >> /P 12 0 R /K 12 0 R 318 0 R 319 0 R 320 0 R 321 0 R 322 0 R 323 0 R 324 0 R 325 0 R 326 0 R 327 0 R /P 12 0 R << /A 470 0 R /S /p25 >> /Resources << /P 12 0 R /A 471 0 R /Pg 32 0 R << 17 0 obj 304 0 obj INTRODUCTION The purpose of this paper is to give a basic understanding of managers and managing. /P 12 0 R /K 1 /Contents 452 0 R /K 10 >> /A 470 0 R /Pg 21 0 R 333 0 obj 219 0 obj /A 470 0 R /Resources << >> /P 12 0 R /Parent 10 0 R >> /S /Normal /P 12 0 R /S /p7 148 0 obj /A 470 0 R /S /t26 79 0 obj /A 490 0 R /A 16 0 R << The major proponents of classical management are Fayol’s (1949) and Weber’s (1922). >> << << /K 11 Improving the effectiveness of school management remains one of our fundamental concerns. endobj << /A 509 0 R << /P 12 0 R /S /p36 endobj /P 12 0 R /S /p11 The Ten Schools of Thought model from Mintzberg is a framework that can be used to categorize the field of Strategic Management. Scientific Management Theory is well known theory of management which was developed by Freiderick Winslow Taylor in 1911. endobj /S /p17 << /A 470 0 R /A 470 0 R /S /t32 /K 13 /S /p3 /Pg 34 0 R 61 0 obj /P 12 0 R endobj >> /K 5 /K 23 endobj endobj /Rotate 0 /S /Normal << 143 0 obj /S /p10 endobj /Font << 3 0 obj /Pg 18 0 R << /ExtGState << endobj /Pg 37 0 R >> /Pg 18 0 R /P 12 0 R 282 0 obj /rgid (PB:224952289_AS:98970374246412@1400607784518) >> /S /p11 endobj /Pg 20 0 R endobj /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /K 3 76 0 R 77 0 R 78 0 R 79 0 R] /Properties << /Pg 37 0 R "Establish fit!" /Pg 18 0 R /A 470 0 R << /CropBox [0 0 612 792] >> << 2008-08-05T12:08:01+05:30 >> << endobj << /A 490 0 R endobj /K 4 /S /p6 /K 5 /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /ExtGState << /P 12 0 R endobj /S /p6 /A 470 0 R /S /Normal >> endobj >> /S /p2 /Contents 454 0 R /ExtGState << /Rotate 0 380 0 R 381 0 R 382 0 R 383 0 R 384 0 R 385 0 R 386 0 R 387 0 R 388 0 R 389 0 R << /CropBox [0 0 612 792] << >> endobj /p5 /P >> /P 12 0 R << /K 3 /Pg 27 0 R /Type /Page /GS0 441 0 R endobj << /K 11 endobj /P 12 0 R 179 0 obj /S /Normal endobj %PDF-1.5 234 0 obj 221 0 R 222 0 R 223 0 R] endobj endobj /A 470 0 R endobj >> 407 0 R 408 0 R 409 0 R 410 0 R 411 0 R 412 0 R 413 0 R 301 0 R 302 0 R 414 0 R /Pg 37 0 R endobj endobj >> /Pg 36 0 R 3 %PDF-1.4 /K 0 /K [4 5] >> /A 490 0 R 410 0 obj /K 8 /S /Underline Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. << /A 470 0 R /Pg 22 0 R 6 0 obj 115 0 obj 122 0 obj endobj /Pg 35 0 R << endobj /A 470 0 R /S /Shape argued that both leadership and management skills have had to adapt so that organizations are able to survive. /A 470 0 R << /S /p41 << << << /Font << >> endobj /P 12 0 R 257 0 obj << /S /p3 /Font << /S /p11 1 [79 0 R 80 0 R 344 0 R 82 0 R 83 0 R 84 0 R 85 0 R 86 0 R 87 0 R 88 0 R /K 6 /S /p42 /t35 /P >> /P 560 0 R 44 0 obj /Pg 21 0 R /S /p7 UNIT 4 SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT 247 0 obj << 286 0 obj endobj /Parent 10 0 R endobj >> << /Properties << endobj /K [37 557 0 R] >> �^#�O1X��|�b[}[��� ����u�+oc[˹�v����)��V^v�����h��sFJyk��t��K� �-�� ��)&mG��[��Z� JP /P 12 0 R /S /t28 /LJ 0 /A 470 0 R endobj /P 12 0 R << >> /CropBox [0 0 612 792] >> /P 12 0 R /K 12 /P 12 0 R 152 0 obj >> /P 12 0 R 269 0 obj /Pg 27 0 R >> /S /p2 >> /A 490 0 R /K 11 /A 506 0 R 332 0 R 333 0 R 334 0 R 335 0 R 336 0 R 337 0 R 338 0 R 339 0 R 415 0 R 339 0 R << >> /K 12 /P 12 0 R /TT2 438 0 R /A 473 0 R /A 470 0 R << 12 0 obj /K 2 /S /p43 /Rotate 0 298 0 R 299 0 R 300 0 R 301 0 R 302 0 R 303 0 R 304 0 R 305 0 R 306 0 R 307 0 R 185 0 obj /CropBox [0 0 612 792] endobj >> /A 470 0 R /S /p17 It is also known as time and motion study. endobj /K 42 /P 93 0 R endobj >> >> endobj << << /K 8 /K 9 >> /S /t34 /K 2 endobj /Endnote /Note << /S /p6 233 0 obj >> << /S /p17 /Resources << /Pg 33 0 R /S /p11 endobj /A 470 0 R /heading#201 /P /K 7 /K 10 /K 7 25 0 obj /K 32 /A 490 0 R /K [16 520 0 R] /S /p28 /K 31 /S /p17 >> >> 226 0 obj endobj 235 0 obj >> >> endobj /Pg 22 0 R /K 3 >> 389 0 obj /A 470 0 R /A 490 0 R /S /Table >> /K 10 << /Pg 34 0 R >> >> /TT2 438 0 R 212 0 obj << /GS0 441 0 R endobj endobj /K 12 /Properties << /Pg 33 0 R >> /S /p6 Approach: Clear and unique strategies are formulated in a deliberate process. /S /p25 endobj /TT1 439 0 R /Resources << << 190 0 obj D:20080805064120 >> 227 0 obj >> 86 0 obj /Pg 18 0 R /P 12 0 R /A 470 0 R /Type /Page /P 12 0 R /A 575 0 R /S /p25 /K 7 << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] 417 0 obj /ExtGState << >> /p28 /P /K 15 /P 12 0 R >> << /Pg 32 0 R << << /Pg 23 0 R ����]��ߺ��Z%m%�6�ϟ��d��J�I�� ��e���%7�C��]�J����7��:���'o��K3�Ҏ���ϒ7�^%7���nw�N��r.��A��^�0������[F�:���?S(��i�����#�U��� -����b� �}r�Zf��$?#bb���k|�ї�ƪ��±Q��Q�Ǿ�D��G��Oo��?Cpz9k�՜Aum�D��5�ɦ,�\���^` �FD��� ���D֮F�#E��T���蓑K���Q�� /Pg 36 0 R endobj 206 0 obj 370 0 R 371 0 R 372 0 R 373 0 R 374 0 R 375 0 R 376 0 R 377 0 R 378 0 R 379 0 R >> 48 0 obj Theory X is a management theory focused more on classical management theory and assumes that workforce need a high amount of supervision because they are inherently lazy. 48 0 R 49 0 R 50 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R 53 0 R 54 0 R 55 0 R 56 0 R 57 0 R /Pg 30 0 R >> /Pg 33 0 R 186 0 obj /P 540 0 R /LC 0 334 0 obj /Type /Pages >> /P 12 0 R endobj /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /Pg 36 0 R Multidisciplinary: Systems approach integrates and uses with profit ideas emerging from different schools of thought. /P 570 0 R /K 9 /A 470 0 R /K 3 << /A 490 0 R << 24 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> 305 0 obj 10 0 obj /S /p11 >> endobj endobj >> 111 0 obj endobj 394 0 obj << << << /Pg 32 0 R << >> >> << 188 0 obj << 252 0 obj /Type /Catalog /A 470 0 R 246 0 obj /A 474 0 R /Pg 25 0 R /A 490 0 R /Font << /Type /Page 346 0 obj << /P 12 0 R 39 0 obj endobj endobj /p21 /P endobj /K 15 endobj << endobj Behavioral School of Management Theory - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives. << /Subtype /Image 28 0 obj >> >> 13 0 obj endobj /K 7 /S /t26 << << << endobj m�k���N�� >> /Pg 36 0 R 108 0 obj /A 470 0 R /ExtGState << << /P 12 0 R /A 470 0 R 217 0 obj /P 12 0 R 243 0 obj >> /A 470 0 R >> /S /Normal /P 12 0 R /A 470 0 R /K 3 /P 12 0 R /K 9 48 0 R 49 0 R 50 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R 53 0 R 54 0 R 55 0 R 56 0 R 57 0 R endobj 198 0 R 199 0 R 200 0 R 201 0 R 202 0 R 203 0 R 204 0 R 205 0 R 206 0 R 207 0 R /S /p2 Management is defined as the art of getting things done by making the best use of available resources. 88 0 obj 134 0 obj /A 470 0 R /S /p1 /Pg 19 0 R endobj >> /A 470 0 R /p39 /P /Parent 10 0 R >> /P 12 0 R /K 13 /Pg 33 0 R /A 470 0 R /K 9 << 308 0 R 309 0 R 310 0 R 311 0 R 312 0 R 313 0 R 314 0 R 315 0 R 316 0 R 317 0 R >> endstream /P 12 0 R �V��T�N�X�+�T��S��J�u�R�L�?H��M����e��e8V��J޿���Z��B�Qj�.���me.''+�c������v�bF-;�w����. endobj /P 12 0 R /Resources << /t28 /P 150 0 obj /BM /Normal << /K 10 /S /p35 << /A 482 0 R 355 0 obj /P 12 0 R endobj /P 12 0 R << %���� /A 470 0 R /Pg 32 0 R 240 0 obj /A 470 0 R >> >> << << /Pg 25 0 R endobj /Metadata 3 0 R 261 0 obj /XObject << 17 [360 0 R 361 0 R 362 0 R 363 0 R 364 0 R 365 0 R 366 0 R 367 0 R 368 0 R 369 0 R /TT2 439 0 R endobj

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