In the first quarter of 2009, workovers were made on three major and nine minor wells. "Mexico's Pemex to Spend $6B to Maintain Output at Cantarell", "Pemex's Cantarell Drops at Fastest Rate in 14 Years", "Production decline worsens at Mexico's biggest oil field", "Mexico's Cantarell field: how long will it last? Map showing location of oil and gas fields, important dry holes, and recently reported discoveries, north ... Cantarell Complex oil field, offshore Campeche area ..... 33 21. Luis Ramírez Corzo, head of PEMEX's exploration and production division, announced on August 12, 2004 that the actual oil output from Cantarell was forecast to decline steeply from 2006 onwards, at a rate of 14% per year. The downfall has adversely affected Mexico’s annual government budget and credit rating. One of the main reasons for Cantarell’s prolific oil production rate was the existence of a giant natural gas bubble that maintained pressure over the reservoir for the first 20 years of the field’s life. The field is expected to produce 927,000bopd at peak in 2013 due to start-up of adjacent satellite deposits. Cantarell lies below about 120 ft of water in the Bay of Campeche and provides heavy crude at about 22 degree … 2000 The recently discovered Sihil field (1-15,000 million barrels) contains light oil in Jurassic strata below the other reservoirs and is generally referred to as a separate field, although its development will obviously benefit from the infrastructure already in place above it. The Cantarell field produces out of three separate fault-bounded allochthonous blocks: the Akal, Nohoch, and Kutz blocks. , In 2008, Pemex expected Cantarell's decline to continue to 2012 and eventually stabilizing at an output level of around 500,000 barrels per day (80,000 m3/d).  In terms of cumulative production to date, it is by far the largest oil field in Mexico, and one of the largest in the world. Mexico Oil Fields Map Field Acronyms EUR_MMBOE = Estimated ultimate recovery in million barrels of oil equivalent Giant oil and gas fields = those with 500 million barrels (79,000,000 m3) of ultimately recoverable oil or gas equivalent.  Folding occurred in the early Miocene to Pliocene and the compression forced up Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic blocks forming the Structural trap in which hydrocarbons migrated in the Miocene.  It was placed on nitrogen injection in 2000, and production peaked at 2.1 million barrels per day (330,000 m3/d) in 2004. Gas flare reduction turbocompressors, gas reinjection and a nitrogen recovery unit were also installed. The main field is located in the Akal structure.  However, Cantarell had much smaller oil reserves than Ghawar, so production began to decline rapidly in the second half of the decade. Produced gas is sent onshore for treatment and consumption, and the balance is returned offshore for gas lift. In the Cantarell field, approximately 100 wells have been shut in as a result of high GORs and high water cuts, and the Ku-Maloob-Zaap field is starting to show incipient profiles of unhandled water and high GORs. Because of the oilfield’s geological formation, neither of these turned out to be a viable solution, but nitrogen was. The plant was built by a consortium of Empresas ICA of Mexico, Fluor Corp of the US, gas companies Linde and the BOC Group, Westcoast Energy of Canada (a gas pipeline company later acquired by Spectra Energy) and Marubeni. During the same period, the KMZ-50 nitrogen pipeline also came on line. After six months of study, the team recommended that nitrogen be used to pressurise the reservoir and enhance production at Cantarell. Ku-Maloob-Zaap complex is expected to produce 0.8 million barrels per day (130,000 m3/d) by the end of decade.
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